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Des expressions utiles

Lorsque j'étais étudiante, j'aimais bien posséder quelques expressions " passe partout " concernant par exemple les études de documents, et utilisant les règles de base...

Pourquoi les gens qui voyagent confondent-ils modestie, réserve et ignorance ? Vous apprendrez peut-être qu'entre autre... il m'est arrivé d'enseigner l'anglais bien que ce ne soit pas ma discipline principale de base et que si en anglais je n'ai pas une excellente oreille, je crois être bonne à l'écrit et en grammaire. Ceci pour notre petit désaccord sur " What did you like most ? " Most " ne veut pas dire " plus ", mais " le plus " c'est un superlatif. Voilà pourquoi je le traduisais par qu'avez-vous préféré ?
Je suis têtue, je sais... Comme beaucoup d'entre nous. Mais je le dis avec le sourire et en gardant un bon souvenir de notre séjour commun.
Dear friend,
I was in Turkey for this holidays. Each year, I go abroad because my family loves traveling.
At the moment, one of my sisters is in England in Norwich. My other sister is working in Paris. She will soon go for a trip in Marroco with her friend.
Every afternoon I watch the Stuttgart championship of the world on TV because I love athletism. I hope you also spend good holidays.
On ne met pratiquement jamais the sauf lorsque l'objet est déterminé.The letters he sends : les lettres qu'il envoie
Dear friend
I've just received your letter. I've two sisters too. Co. is 21 rst and Isa. is 18. They are students in Paris. I live at the country in the middle of woods. In a small village whose name is G. I've got a black dog called Flicka.
We are happy to receive you at our home and I'm waiting for you.
yesterday was teh first day of school. In the afternoon i'll go to Brive in my athletic club.

 
Anymore : plus du tout
Anyway : de toutes façons
Anxious : inquiet
As if : comme si
At least : au moins
At time : à l'heure
Away : plus loin
A wealthy area : une aire en pleine santé
Birthday : anniversaire
Book mark : marque page
BookBook worm : rat de bibliothèque
Damp = wet
Dangerous animals : animaux dangereux
District : quartier
East side : côté est
A jewish distrct : un quartier Juif
Both : tous les deux
Cap : casquette
Drugs : des drogues
each other : l'un, l'autre
Far away : loin

Few : quelques
Feelings : sentiments
Friends should be few but good : des amis devraient être peu nombreux mais  bons
From the beginning : par le commencement
Hispanics : hispaniques
Garment : vêtements
Gentle : doux
Greedy : goinfre
Headquarters : quartiers importants
High : haut
I don't easily reveal ( show ) my feelings and so don't my best friend : je ne montre pas facilement mes sentiments et mon meilleur ami non plus.
In fact : en fait.
I nolonger wear : je ne porte plus
I went : je suis allé
I wonder : je me demande
Jews : les juifs
Jewels : des bijoux
Joly : gai
Just : juste
Keen on : être amateur de
Keep in touch : rester en contact
Keep in touch letter : lettre de contact
Largely : Largement
Let me start : commençons

little : petit
Longer : plus long
Lower : plus bas
Market : marché

Marvelous : merveilleux
Mind you : remarquez

Miss : manquer; I miss my friends
More intelligent : Plus intelligent
Named : appelé
Neither ... nor : ni... ni
Office building : Bureau
Purse ; porte-monnaie

Real : vrai, réel
Replaced : remplacé
Scotland : écosse

Shelf : étagère
Skyscraper : Gratte-ciel
So did : et moi aussi

So : si tellement
Still : encore
Store : grand magasin
Taken over : pris
Taller than : plus grand que
Tape : bande magnétique

The largest : le plus grand
The 1960's : les années 60
Then : alors

There used to be : il y avait habituellement là
They even looked : Ils ont même regardé
They went through : ils ont vérifié
Though : quoique, cependant
Tidy : ordonné
To be born : être né
To be keen on : être amateur de
To believe : croire
To come in : rentrer
To go home : aller à la maison
To leave left left :laisser, quitter; they left last week
To live : vivre
To look for : chercher
To look forward to : attendre avec impatience

To own : posséder
To remember : se rappeler
To seem : sembler
To send : envoyer
To spend : passer
To set up : établir
To stay : rester

Used to be :Autrefois, habituellement c'était
We had trouble : Nous avons eu des ennuis

We were having : nous avions

We were given : on nous a donné

We were told : on nous a dit

What : ce qui, ce que, que

Wonderful : merveilleux

Worm : ver

Worried : inquiet




 
 
L'anglais et ses pièges

Des traductions pas évidentes

 
What did you like most ? : qu'avez-vous préféré ?
Cette traduction a posé problème au cours d'un voyage. La personne pensait qu'il s'agissait de dire nos souhaits. Mais non... Elle commettait de graves fautes. " did " n'est pas un conditionnel mais un prétérit et " most" ne veut pas dire " plus ", mais " le plus ". C'est un superlatif.


- He tastes a cake, mot à mot, il goûte au gâteau, expression américaine qu'on pourrait traduire par:celle là c'est la meilleure ou: là, tu m'étonnes, ou: ça alors...ou: j'en reviens pas,c'est génial etc...; utilisé pour exprimer son étonnement mais pas de façon péjorative, au contraire, plutôt admirative.

Riding was his sole interest in life = L'équitation était la seule chose dans la vie qui l'intéressât.
It's the only = C'est le seul
Not a single one = Pas un seul
What an idea ! = Quelle idée !
JC, critic, writer = JC, le critique, l'écrivain
the father of a family = un père de famille
a wise man always keeps his temper = le sage conserve toujours son sang froid
he spoke with wonderful fluency = il a parlé avec une facilité étonnante
He acted with a promptness that amazed the lookers-on = Il agit avec une rapidité étonnante
What irony ! = Quelle ironie !
A piece of news = Une nouvelle !
It takes one a long time to get used to his life = il faut du temps pour s'habituer à ses manières.

One = Un certain

The courage which he has shown = le courage dont il a fait preuve
The king, the doctor, the book, the State, the sea, the United kingdom, the black sea, the army, the navy = Le roi, le docteur, le livre, l'état, la mer, le Royaume Uni, la mer noire, l'armée, la marine.
To go to church, to market, to school, to sea = aller à l'église, au marché, à l'école, à la mer.
white, French, = le blanc, le français
The white = le blanc de l'œuf
the french = les français
man and woman = l'homme et la femme
honesty and probity are the greatest riches = l'honnêteté et la probité sont les plus grandes richesses
Human vanity has no bounds = La vanité humaine n'a pas de limites.
walking is the best exercise = la marche est le meilleur des exercices
I don't like this picture = je n'aime pas ce tableau
every man has his failings = chaque homme ou tout homme a ses défauts
Queen Elisabeth II, doctor Hill, Admiral B = la reine Elisabeth II, le docteur H, l'amiral B
the emperor Napoléon = l'empereur N
the poet S, the carpenter S = le poète s, le charpentier s
france, england = la france , l'angleterre
an absolute old bachelor = un célibataire endurci
his contenance was sensible = son expression était intelligente
his address was particularly gentlemanlike = son savoir vivre particulièrement digne d'un gentleman.

I wish I could write all this last chapter. = J'aurais voulu pouvoir écrire tout ce dernier chapitre
a small-legged man = un homme aux jambes courtes
I wish I could show you him breathing hard = j'aurais voulu vous le montrer respirant difficilement
the leaves fall in autumn = Les feuilles tombent en automne
The sea covers three forth of the globe = La mer couvre les trois quart du globe

As they have an interest in = ils sont concernés par, ils sont intéressés par
they may be interested in = ils peuvent être intéressés par

A new idea = une nouvelle idée.
Michelin have decided to suppress some jobs : chez Michelin ils ont décidé de supprimer des emplois.
He has shown pluck and perseverance = Il a montré de l'audace et de la persévérance.
A few hundred years = Quelques centaines d'années
In number = Au nombre de
I don't like these pictures = Je n'aime pas ces tableaux
In England all vehicles drive on the left = En Angleterre, toutes les voitures roulent à gauche
His clothes were shabby = Ses vêtements étaient larges
He carried a sort of a stick = Il portait une sorte de canne
With a certain condescending roll in his voice = Avec un certain roulement condescendant dans sa voix
And a certain indescribable air of doing something = Et un certain air indescriptible de faire quelque chose
He impressed me very much = il m'impressionna beaucoup
dark against the early winter sunset = sombre dans le contrejour du soleil d'hiver qui se couche tôt
He had good reason to believe = il avait une bonne raison de croire
In that far-off time superstition clung easily round every person = dans ces temps lointains, la superstition planait facilement autour de chacun.
A pleasant sense of scornfull superiority = un plaisant sens de sa supériorité dédaigneuse.
The rude mind with diffculty associates the ideas of power = l'esprit rude associe avec difficulté les idées de pouvoir.
Primitive wants = désirs primitifs
Inhabited by meagre sheep = occupé par de pauvres troupeaux de moutons.
Many people make this mistake; a lot of people make this mistake = Beaucoup de personnes font cette erreur.
More and more important = De plus en plus important.
Breast high = A hauteur de poitrine
Severe looking = d'aspect sévère
Thin lipped = aux lèvres minces

He would like to be = Il aurait aimé être
laden with fruit = chargés de fruits
She was frightened = elle
eut peur
She was to be left alone = on allait la laisser seule




 

Pour vendre un terrain
 

For sale building lands, locality ...Road out of G., to go towards S. These lands will be developped before J. There will be access,  networks : ( water, phone, electricity ). = A vendre terrains à bâtir, localité, route, aller vers. Ces terrains doivent être aménagés avant. Il y aura accessibilité,  aménagements.

It’s possible to extend ... a part of this extension is wooded. = Une extension est possible, une part de cette extension est boisée.

It’s possible to add 600 m2 of woods = Il est possible d'ajouter 600 m2 de bois.

a part of this parcel is wooded ( oaks) = Une partie de cette parcelle est boisée ( chênes ).

Descriptions et expressions plus littéraires
 

She was being able to spoil her children all the year round = elle se soumettait toute l'année aux caprices de ses enfants
She talked a geat deal, seemed very happy and rather vulgar = elle parlait beaucoup, semblait très gaie et plutôt vulgaire
J and W attended the meeting; the former remained silent throughout, but the later made some interesting suggestions = J et W assistaient tous deux à la réunion, le premier garda le silence, mais le dernier fit quelques suggestions intéressantes.
What they did shocked public opinion = ce qu'ils ont fait a choqué l'opinion publique.
He said he had once been a politician, which turned out to be a lie = il disait avoir fait de la politique jadis, ce qui s'avéra être un mensonge.
Modern improvements have altered the place, but it was the last house at the bottom of a narrow street, curving down hill to the river, with some stairs at the end, where people took boat. = Des améliorations modernes ont changé le lieu, mais c'était la dernière maison en bas d'une rue étroite tournant en bas de la colline qui se terminait par des escaliers où les gens pouvaient prendre le bateau.
His complexion was pale or mealy = son teint était pâle ou laiteux.
No word can express the secret agony of his soul as he sunk = aucun mot ne peut exprimer l'agonie secrète de son âme alors qu'il sombrait.
his happier childhood = son enfance plus heureuse
His hopes of growing up to be a learned and distinguished man = ses espoirs de grandir pour être un homme instruit et distingué.
A middle-aged person with no more hair upon his head = une personne d'âge moyen avec plus aucun cheveu sur la tête.

A very serious book that is designed to provide hope and inspiration to anyone affected by. = Un livre très sérieux qui donne espoir et inspiration à quiconque est touché par...

An important looking village with a fine old church = un village à l'aspect important et une élégante vieille église.
The supposed narrator of the whole story = le supposé narrateur de toute cette histoire
They worked with a very decided enthousiasm = ils travaillaient avec un enthousiasme riche de volonté.
In the tale of which an extract is given below = dans l'histoire dont un extrait est donné ci-dessous.

C relates = l'auteur raconte.

A dirty weather knocking about = un temps épouvantable approche.
The sun pale and without rays, poured down a leaden heat = The soleil pale et sans rayons déversait une chaleur de plomb.

Environnement
 


These conventional means of treatment are succeful in killing pest however they pollute the atmosphere and our water. = Ces moyens conventionnels de traitement sont actifs contre les insectes nuisibles, cependant ils polluent l'atmosphère et notre eau.
serious health problems such as cancers, allergies and asthma are also on the increase ( more people suffer from) = de sérieux problèmes de santé tels que les cancers, les allergies et l'asthme sont en augmentation.
In contrast with conventional methods of treatment some people use only water to destroy unwanted pests. = Par contrate avec les méthodes traditionnelles de traitement, des personnes utilisent l'eau pour détruire les insectes nuisibles.
they spay boiling water = Ils pulvérisent de l'eau bouillante.
Materials can be recycled. It's a new life for. = matériaux peuvent être recyclés, c'est une nouvelle vie pour...
Recyclable materials are used in order to prevent pollution = les matériaux recyclables sont utilisés pour éviter la pollution

Dans la rue:
Do not walk next to the kerb = bord du trottoir
Do not walk more than two abreast = de front
There should be look-outs in front and at the back = regarder, veiller.;; devant et derrière
Kerb drill: before you cross stop at the kerb = le bord
where pedestrain crossings, central islands = les refuges pour piétons au centre.
Subways = passages pour piétons
drill : the correct thing of doing something
guard rails = garde-fous, barrières
gaps in the guard rails : des ouvertures, des brèches
 

Vocabulaire pour les examens avant de devenir couvreur

Quelques expressions anglaises sur les  " ardoises " des toitures du Sud Ouest
spotted texture.  a cleavage plane of the specimen.


Where Does Slate Come From? D’où viennent les ardoises ?
Slate is a fine grained, crystalline rock : l’ardoise est une roche cristalline à grain fin.
Derived from sediments of clay  which were deposited on ancient sea bottoms. Dérivé de sédiments de craie et... qui furent déposés dans un ancien fond marin.
The metamorphic processes of geologic change necessary to produce slate are dependent upon movements in the earth's crust and the heat and pressure generated thereby.
Les procédés métamorphiques de changements nécessaires pour produire de l'ardoise dépendent des mouvements de la croute terrestre, de la chaleur, de la pression générée sur le lieu...
For this reason, slate is found only in certain mountainous regions.
Pour cette raison on n'en trouve que dans les régions montagneuses.China has vast slate deposits; in recent years its export of finished and unfinished slate has increased. China's slates have many colours.
Slate-producing regions in Europe include Angers, Anjou, Corrèze ( Travassac Allassac) and Spain...
Slate was often used on farm and agricultural buildings as well.
L’ardoise a souvent été utilisée pour les fermes et les bâtiments agricoles.
Slate Use in the United States : utilisation de l'ardoise aux USA. Although slate quarrying was not common in the United States until the latter half of the nineteenth century :
Quoique les carrières d'ardoises n'étaient pas fréquentes aux EU jusqu' à la 2ième moitié du 19ième siècle.
Archeological excavations at Jamestown, Virginia, have unearthed roofing slate in strata
Des excavations archéologiques... ont mis à jour des strates d’ardoise.
Quarries were opened in Vermont, New York, Virginia, and Lehigh and Northampton Counties, Pennsylvania. Des carrières ont été ouvertes au V...
Slate is also found in the Arctic and was used by the Inuit.

Slate is one of the most aesthetical pleasing and durable of all roofing materials.
L’ardoise est l’un des matériaux les plus agréables esthétiquement et les plus résistants des matériaux utilisés pour les toits.
When broken, slate produces a natural appearance while remaining relatively flat ( relativement plate). Silicone glue adheres to slate.


Slate extraction

Slate installed by a slater = ( couvreur). It’s possible to split slate into thin sheets = de la tailler en fines plaques. Due to its thermal stability and chemical inertness. Chemical composition : Slate is mainly composed of quartz,less frequently, ( moins fréquemment ) graphite, kaolin.

 Slate replacement roofs are expensive;  le remplacement des ardoises d’un toit est cher.
the superiority of materials ;  la supérorité des matériaux
will give years of continued service. Donnera une longue  durée de vie

Slate is available in a variety of colors. The most common are grey, blue-grey, black, various shades of green, deep purple, brick red
 l'ardoise existe en diverses couleurs La plus commune est grise, gris bleu, noir, divers verts sombres, violet foncé, rouge brique.

The presence of carbonaceous matter ( matière ), derived from the decay ( la décomposition ) of marine or

Quelques expressions anglaises sur les  " ardoises " des toitures du Sud Ouest

China has vast slate deposits; in recent years its export of finished and unfinished slate has increased. China's slates have many colours.
Slate-producing regions in Europe include Angers, Anjou, Corrèze ( Travassac ) and Spain...

Slate installed by a slater. It’s possible to split slate into thin sheets. Due to its thermal stability and chemical inertness.

Slate is one of the most aesthetical and durable of all roofing materials.
L’ardoise est l’un des matériaux les plus esthétiques et les plus résistants des matériaux utilisés pour les toits
When broken, slate produces a natural appearance while remaining relatively flat. Silicone glue adheres to slate.
Slate extraction
Chemical composition : Slate is mainly composed of quartz,less frequently, ( moins fréquemment ) graphite, kaolin.

Slate was often used on farm and agricultural buildings as well.
L’ardoise a souvent été utilisée pour les fermes et les bâtiments agricoles.

 Slate replacement roofs are expensive;  le remplacement des ardoises d’un toit est cher.

the superiority of materials ;  la supérorité des matériaux
will give years of continued service. Donnera une longue  durée de vie

Slate Use in the United States : utilisation de l'ardoise aux USA
Although slate quarrying was not common in the United States until the latter half of the nineteenth century :
Quoique les carrières d'ardoises n'étaient pas fréquentes aux EU jusqu' à la 2ième moitié du 19ième siècle.
Archeological excavations at Jamestown, Virginia, have unearthed roofing slate in strata
Des excavations archéologiques... ont mis à jour des strates d’ardoise
Quarries were opened in Vermont, New York, Virginia, and Lehigh and Northampton Counties, Pennsylvania. Des carrières ont été ouvertes au V...
Where Does Slate Come From? D’où viennent les ardoises ?
Slate is a fine grained, crystalline rock : l’ardoise est une roche cristalline à grain fin.
Derived from sediments of clay  which were deposited on ancient sea bottoms. Dérivé de sédiments de craie et... qui furent déposés dans un ancien  fond marin.

The metamorphic processes of geologic change necessary to produce slate are dependent upon movements in the earth's crust and the heat and 
pressure generated thereby.

Les procédés métamorphiques de changements nécessaires pour produire de l'ardoise dépendent des mouvements de la croute terrestre, de la chaleur, de la pression générée sur le lieu...
For this reason, slate is found only in certain mountainous regions.
Pour cette raison on n'en trouve que dans les régions montagneuses.
Slate is available in a variety of colors. The most common are grey, blue-grey, black, various shades of green, deep purple, brick red
 l'ardoise existe en diverses couleurs La plus commune est grise, gris bleu, noir, divers verts sombres, violet foncé, rouge brique.
The presence of carbonaceous matter ( matière ), derived from the decay ( la décomposition ) of marine organisms on ancient sea floors, gives rise to  the black colored slates. donne aux ardoises cette couleur noire
Compounds of iron generate the red, purple, and green colored slates.
des composés de fer donnent les ardoises aux nuances  rouge, pourpre, et vert

In recent years, slates from China, Africa, Spain and other countries have begun ( commencé ) to be imported into the United States,
Insufficient nailing =  pas assez de clous
may be covered with waterproof membrane : peut être recouvert par une couverture waterproof. ( sous toiture )
 In emergency situations, such as when severe tornadoes (tornades ) blow ( soufflent ); numerous slates off the roof; a temporary roof covering should

be ( devrait être ) installed immediately.

 leaky gutters, (gouttière ) poor ventilation, and other possible sources of moisture. ( moisissure )
to prevent overloading of the roof timbers = pour empêcher la surcharge des  poutres
Other repairs, such as chimneys  (cheminées )
Drawings ( plans, dessins )
a restoration architect
the original appearance of the roof as closely as possible. = aussi près que possible de l'apparence d'origine du toit.
 to avoid galvanic action.( rouille ). Choose nonferrous nails. ( clous )
Copper ( cuivre ) is one of the best  materials; it's most often associated with historic slate roofs. Copper is extremely durable, easily worked  and

requires little maintenance.
C' est un  des matériaux parmi les meilleurs, parmi les  plus utilisés pour les toits de monuments historiques.
Copper should be used in gutters, valleys,  and areas ( zones ) with limited accessibility.
 flashings, gutters,  and metal roofs (différents objets du métier )
Slates nailed in such a manner; les ardoises sont clouées d'une certaine façon
 the cost of labor = le coût du travail
and tearingoff the old roof
  Natural slate tends to (  paraissent;  tendent à ) be a better investment.
Covered by an experienced slater and one helper; un couvreur expérimenté et un manoeuvre.
More complex roofs and the presence of chimneys, dormers, and valleys.
repair/replace.
Damaged and missing slates. Gutters = gouttières, ardoises manquantes
moisture stains =  taches de moisissure
Slate is durable
Deteriorated slates = détériorées
A full, deep sound indicates a slate in good condition. Un son profond indique une ardoise en bonne condition
If maintenance personnel, chimney sweeps, (ramoneurs) painters, or others must walk (marcher ) on the roof, it is recommended that ladders

(échelles ) be hooked over ( accrochées ) the ridge and that the workmen walk on the ladders to better  = mieux répartir leur poids ) distribute their

weight.
Slate roofs of many historic buildings
Slate roofs can, and should be, maintained and repaired to effectively extend their lives. (allonger sa durée de vie )
High quality slates, reputable quarries = carrières de bonne réputation
The quality of the slate,
North Country Slate produces the highest ( la plus haute ) quality roofing slate in the world and its specification is recognized across North America  for

quality.

Natural slate roofing has been protecting and adorning buildings for over a thousand years.
The finest Canadian and Vermont roofing slate, from North Country, can endure ( durer des siècles ) for centuries on a roof...many other slates or

imitation slates, cannot.
a world-class reputation for quality and excellence.

  Slate installed by a slater = ( couvreur)

Slate installed by a slater. It’s possible to split slate into thin sheets
= de la tailler en fines plaques. Due to its thermal stability and chemical inertness
When broken, slate produces a natural appearance while remaining relatively flat ( relativement plate) . Silicone glue adheres to slate,
Slate extraction

Slate is also found in the Arctic and was used by the Inuit. China has vast slate deposits; in recent years its export  has increased.
On historic buildings
To repair slate roofs you need
Qualified workers ( travailleurs qualifiés ) trained and experienced ( entraînés expérimentés )

To store in a upright position;( posés non à plat)...to store (emmagasiner ) in an area maintained at a temperature not lower ( pas plus basse ) than ten

degrees
Before laying ( avant de poser )

Slate is one of the most aesthetically pleasing and durable of all roofing materials.
L’ardoise est l’un des matériaux les plus agréables esthétiquement des toits
Slate was often used on farms and agricultural buildings as well.
L’ardoise a souvent été utilisée pour les fermes et les bâtiments agricoles

 slate replacement roofs are expensive,  le remplacement des ardoises d’un toit est cher; the superiority of materials  la supérorité des matériaux will

give years of continued service. Donnera une longue  durée de vie

History of Slate Use in the United States
Although slate quarrying was not common in the United States until the latter half of the nineteenth century, slate roofing is known to have been used

prior to the Revolution. Archeological excavations at Jamestown, Virginia, have unearthed roofing slate in strata.
quarries were opened in , New York, Virginia, and  Pennsylvania.
Where Does Slate Come From? D’où viennent les ardoises ?
Slate is a fine grained, crystalline rock l’ardoise est une roche cristalline à grain fin; derived from sediments of clay and fine silt which  ( sédiments

d'argile et de limon qui ) were deposited on ancient sea bottoms. Dérivé de sédiments de craie et... qui furent déposés dans un ancien fond marin.
 
At the same time, intense heat and pressure changed the original clays into new minerals such as mica, chlorite, and quartz.
Dans le même temps une chaleur intense et la pression ont changé la craie d’origine en nouveaux minéraux tels mica ch et quartz.
 By such mechanical and chemical processes were transformed, or metamorphosed, into slate.
whole geologic ages
 Slates vary in composition, structure, and durability because the degree to which their determinant minerals have been altered ( altérés ) is neither

uniform nor consistent. (ni uniforme, ni...)
 These traditional slater's tools are used to cut ... hammer, measure, and rip out nails.

The adaptation of slate for roofing purposes is. The manufacturing processes of nature have transformed slate with certain commercially properties

which have had a profound influence on the methods by which slate is quarried and fabricated, as well as its suitability for use as a roofing tile.
The metamorphic processes of geologic change necessary to produce slate are dependent upon movements in the earth's crust and the heat and

pressure generated thereby.
 
Slate is available in a variety of colors. The most common are grey, blue-grey, black, various shades of green, deep purple, brick red, and mottled varieties. The presence of carbonaceous matter, derived from the decay of marine organisms on ancient sea floors, gives rise to the black colored slates. Compounds of iron generate the red, purple, and green colored slates.
Generally, the slates of Maine, Virginia, and the Peach Bottom district of York County, Pennsylvania are deep blue-black in color. Those of Virginia have
a distinctive lustrous appearance as well due to their high mica content. The slates of Lehigh and Northampton Counties, Pennsylvania, are grayish-black in color. Green, red, purple, and mottled slates derive from the New York-Vermont district. The slate producing region of New York, which
centers around Granville and Middle Granville, is particularly important because it contains one of the few commercial deposits of red slate in the world.
In recent years, slates from China, Africa, Spain and other countries have begun to be imported into the United States, primarily for distribution on the  West Coast. The use of imported slates should probably be limited to new construction since their colors and textures often do not match those of U.S.
slate.
 

Deterioration of Slate and Slate Roofs
 The white blotches on these Pennsylvania Soft-Vein slates indicate areas where gypsum is leaching out onto the surfaces of the slates. Photo: Jeffrey S. Levine.
The durability of a slate roof depends primarily on four factors: the physical and mineralogical properties of the slate; the way in which it is fabricated; installation techniques employed; and, regular and timely maintenance. The first three of these factors are examined below. The maintenance and  repair of slate roofs are discussed in later sections of this Brief.
The natural weathering of roofing slate manifests itself as a slow process of chipping and scaling along the cleavage planes. Paper thin laminations flake off the surface of the slate and the slate becomes soft and spongy as the inner layers begin to come apart, or delaminate. The nature of the sound given off by a slate when tapped with one's knuckles or slating hammer is a fair indication of its condition. Highgrade slate, when poised upon the fingertips and struck, will emit a clear, solid sound. Severely weathered slates are much less sonorous, and give off a dull thud when tapped.
The weathering of slate is chiefly due to mineral impurities (primarily calcite and iron sulfides) in the slate which, in concert with alternating wet/dry and   hot/cold cycles, react to form gypsum. Because gypsum molecules take up about twice as much volume as calcite molecules, internal stresses result
from the reaction, causing the slate to delaminate. This type of deterioration is as prominent on the underside of the roof as on the exposed surface due to the leaching and subsequent concentration of gypsum in this area. Consequently, deteriorated roofing slates typically cannot be flipped over and
reused.

 Paper thin lamination can be seen flaking off this weathered, 120 year piece of Pennsylvania Hard-Vein slate. Photo: Jeffrey S. Levine.
The chemical and physical changes which accompany slate weathering cause an increase in absorption and a decrease in both strength and toughness.
The tendency of old, weathered slates to absorb and hold moisture can lead to rot in underlying areas of wood sheathing. Such rot can go undetected
for long periods of time since, often, there is no accompanying leak. Due to their loss of strength, weathered slates are more prone to breakage, loss of
corners, and cracking.
Slates with low calcite content tend to weather slowly. Dense slates, with low porosity, likewise decay slower than slates with equal calcite, but with a greater porosity. The pitch of a roof can also affect its longevity. The steeper the pitch, the longer the slate can be expected to last as water will run off  faster and will be less likely to be drawn under the slates by capillary action or driven under by wind forces. Spires and the steep slopes of Mansard roofs often retain their original slate long after other portions of the roof have been replaced. Areas of a roof subject to concentrated water flows and ice damming, such as along eaves and valleys, also tend to deteriorate more rapidly than other areas of the roof.
 View of these slates laid on open sheathing shows that delamination an flaking are just as bad or worse on the underside of slates as on the exposed surface. This is why most slates cannot be flipped over for reuse. Photo: Jeffrey S. Levine.
Mechanical agents, such as thermal expansion and contraction and the action of frost, are subordinate in the weathering of slate, coming into play only after the slate has been materially altered from its original state by the chemical transformation of calcite to gypsum. The more rapid deterioration of slates found on roof slopes with the most severe exposure to the sun, wind, and rain (typically, but not always, a southern exposure) may be
attributable to the combined result of the deleterious effects of impurities in the slate and mechanical agents. Atmospheric acids produce only negligible deterioration in roofing slate.
It is difficult to assess the procedures by which a piece of slate has been fabricated without visiting the quarry and observing the process first hand. The
location and size of nail holes, grain orientation, the condition of corners, and the number of broken pieces are all things which may be observed in a shipment of slate to judge the quality of its fabrication. Nail holes should be clean and with a shallow countersink on the face of the slate for the nail head; grain oriented along the length of the slate; and, corners left whole. An allowance for 10% breakage in shipment is typically provided for by the quarry.
Installation problems often involve the improper nailing and lapping of slates. The nailing of slates differs from that of other roofing materials. Slate
nails should not be driven tight as is the case with asphalt and wood shingles. Rather, they should be set such that the slate is permitted to hang freely
on the nail shank. Nails driven too far will crack the slate and those left projecting will puncture the overlying slate. Nail heads left exposed accelerate
roof deterioration by providing a point for water entry. Non-ferrous slater's nails, such as solid copper or stainless steel, should always be used since plain steel and galvanized nails will usually rust out long before the slate itself begins to deteriorate. The rusting of nineteenth century cut nails is a common cause of slate loss on historic roofs.
When joints are improperly broken (i.e., when slates lap the joints in the course below by less than 3" [7.5 cm]), it is possible for water to pass between the joints, through the nail holes and ultimately to the underlying felt, where it will cause deterioration and leaks to develop. Insufficient headlap can also result in leaks as water entering the joints between slates may have a greater tendency to be wind blown beyond the heads of the slates in the course below.
Occasionally, individual slates are damaged. This may be caused by falling tree limbs, ice dams in gutters, valleys, and chimney crickets, the weight of a workman walking on the roof, or a naturally occurring fault in the slate unit. Whatever the form of damage, if it is caught soon enough, the roof can
usually be repaired or selectively replaced and deterioration mitigated.
The ability to lay slate properly so as to produce a watertight and aesthetically pleasing roof requires training, much practice, and the right tools. The installation and repair of slate roofs should be entrusted only to experienced slaters.
Broken, cracked, and missing slates should be repaired promptly by an experienced slater in order to prevent water damage to interior finishes
The damaged slate is first removed by cutting or pulling out its nails with a ripper. If steel cut nails, rather than copper nails, were used in laying the roof, adjacent slates may be inadvertently damaged or displaced in the ripping process, and these, too, will have to be repaired. If the slate does not slide out by itself, the pointed end of the ,slate hammer can be punched into the slate and the slate dragged out. A new slate, or salvaged slate, which

should match the size, shape, texture, and weathered color of the old slate, is then slid into place and held in position by one nail inserted through the
vertical joint between the slates in the course above and approximately one inch below the tail of the slate two courses above.

After removing the deteriorated slate and sliding the new slate into place, it is secured with a copper nail. A copper bib (shown here) is formed to protect the newly created nail hole. Finally, a slate hammer is used to push the bib in place over the nail head.
To prevent water penetration through the newly created nail hole, a piece of is slid lengthwise under the joint between the two
To permit proper re-laying of the slate, the new roof must be of smooth and solid construction. At least two nails should be Insufficient nailing may be covered with waterproof membrane underlayment rather
In emergency situations, such as when severe hurricanes or tornadoes blow numerous slates off the roof, a temporary roof covering should be installed
immediately after the storm to prevent further water damage to the interior of the building and to permit the drying out process to begin.
 can be blown off in high winds.

localized problems
 damaged roofs with reasonably long serviceable lives remaining. If 20% or more of the slates on a roof or roof slope are broken, cracked, missing, or  sliding out of position, it is usually less expensive to replace the roof than to execute individual repairs
 It is usually wise to salvage slates when only a portion of the roof is to be replaced. In this way, the salvaged slates may be used for future repairs to

the remaining sections of the roof.

Deteriorated Roofs
Historic slate roofs should be repaired rather than replaced whenever possible. Before replacing a slate roof, check for isolated damage, corroded and
worn flashings, leaky gutters, poor ventilation in the attic, and other possible sources of moisture.
If repair is not possible and a new slate roof must be installed, it is important to remember that more than just the replacement of the slate is involved.
The old slate should be removed to prevent overloading of the roof timbers. Stripping should be done in sections, with felt installed, to avoid exposing
the entire subroof to the weather. ln the process, rotted wood sheathing should be replaced and the roof timbers checked for signs of stress including deflection, cracking, and twisting. If such conditions are found, a structural engineer experienced in working with older buildings should be consulted.

Other repairs, such as chimney repointing, which may require access to the roof should be completed before the new roof is put on.
Drawings and specifications for a new slate roof should be prepared by a restoration architect, the original appearance of the roof as closely as possible.
A roof and its associated flashings, gutters,
to avoid galvanic action. Choose nonferrous nails. Use heavier gauge flashings
Copper is one of the best flashing materials is most often associated with historic slate roofs. Copper is extremely durable, easily worked and soldered,
and requires little maintenance.
copper should be used in gutters, valleys, and areas with limited accessibility. flashings, gutters, downspouts, and metal roofs
covered with a cap flashing. Slates nailed in such a manner
It is important that holes be punched from the back side of the slate. In this way, a shallow countersink is created on the face of the slate in which the

head of the nail may sit.
the cost of labor, flashings, and tearingoff the old roof
natural slate tends to be a better investment
covered by an experienced slater and one helper
More complex roofs and the presence of chimneys, dormers, and valleys
 
repair/replace
damaged and missing slatesGutters
moisture stains

slate is durable


Deteriorated slates
A full, deep sound indicates a slate in good condition, while a dull thud suggests a slate in poor condition.

Given the relatively high initial cost of installing a new slate roof, to inspect its overall condition annually and after several storms. For safety reasons, it is recommended that building owners and maintenance personnel carry out roof surveys from the ground
Regular maintenance should include cleaning gutters at least twice during the fall and once in early spring, and replacing damaged slates promptly.
Every five to seven years inspections should be conducted by professionals experienced in working with slate and steep slopes.
If maintenance personnel, chimney sweeps, painters, or others must walk on the roof, it is recommended that ladders be hooked over the ridge and

that the workmen walk on the ladders to better distribute their weight. If slates are to be walked on, it is best to wear soft soled shoes and to step on  the lowermiddle of the slate unit.
Slate roofs of many historic buildings
  When replacement is necessary, details contributing to the appearance of the roof should be retained.

In town

Do not walk next to the kerb = bord du trottoir
Do not walk more than two abreast = de front
There should be look-outs in front and at the back = regarder, veiller... devant et derrière
Kerb drill: before you cross stop at the kerb = le bord
Where pedestrian crossings, central islands = les refuges pour piétons au centre.
Subways = passages pour piétons
Drill : the correct thing of doing something
Guard rails = garde-fous, barrières
Gaps in the guard rails : des ouvertures, des brèches
the father of a family = un père de famille



 Feelings expressions to judge

What an idea ! = Quelle idée !
JC, critic, writer = JC, le critique, l'écrivain
Amazed the lookers-on = étonner
What irony ! = Quelle ironie !
The courage which he has shown = le courage dont il a fait preuve
Honesty and probity are the greatest riches = l'honnêteté et la probité sont les plus grandes richesses.
Human vanity has no bounds = La vanité humaine n'a pas de limites.
Every man has his failings = chaque homme ou tout homme a ses défauts


Descriptions of pictures or documents

A piece of news = Une nouvelle !
I don't like this picture = je n'aime pas ce tableau




Riding was his sole interest in life = L'équitation était la seule chose dans la vie qui l'intéressât.
It's the only = C'est le seul
Not a single one = Pas un seul
What an idea ! = Quelle idée !
JC, critic, writer = JC, le critique, l'écrivain
the father of a family = un père de famille
a wise man always keeps his temper = le sage conserve toujours son sang froid
he spoke with wonderful fluency = il a parlé avec une facilité étonnante
He acted with a promptness that amazed the lookers-on = Il agit avec une rapidité étonnante
What irony ! = Quelle ironie !
A piece of news = Une nouvelle !
It takes one a long time to get used to his life = il faut du temps pour s'habituer à ses manières.
One = Un certain
The courage which he has shown = le courage dont il a fait preuve
The king, the doctor, the book, the State, the sea, the United kingdom, the black sea, the army, the navy = Le roi, le docteur, le livre, l'état, la mer, le

Royaume Uni, la mer noire, l'armée, la marine.
To go to church, to market, to school, to sea = aller à l'église, au marché, à l'école, à la mer.
white, French, = le blanc, le français
The white = le blanc de l'oeuf
the french = les français
man and woman = l'homme et la femme
honesty and probity are the greatest riches = l'honnêteté et la probité sont les plus grandes richesses
Human vanity has no bounds = La vanité humaine n'a pas de limites.
walking is the best exercise = la marche est le meilleur des exercices
I don't like this picture = je n'aime pas ce tableau
every man has his failings = chaque homme ou tout homme a ses défauts
Queen Elisabeth II, doctor Hill, Admiral B = la reine Elisabeth II, le docteur H, l'amiral B
the emperor Napoléon = l'empereur N
the poet S, the carpenter S = le poète s, le charpentier s
france, england = la france , l'angleterre
an absolute old bachelor = un célibataire endurci
his contenance was sensible = son expression était intelligente
his address was particularly gentlemanlike = son savoir vivre particulièrement digne d'un gentleman.
I wish I could write all this last chapter. = J'aurais voulu pouvoir écrire tout ce dernier chapitre
a small-legged man = un homme aux jambes courtes
I wish I could show you him breathing hard = j'aurais voulu vous le montrer respirant difficilement
the leaves fall in autumn = Les feuilles tombent en automne
The sea covers three forth of the globe = La mer couvre les trois quart du globe
As they have an interest in = ils sont concernés par, ils sont intéressés par
they may be interested in = ils peuvent être intéressés par
A new idea = une nouvelle idée.
Michelin have decided to suppress some jobs chez Michlin ils ont décidé de supprimer des emplois.
He has shown pluck and perseverance = Il a montré de l'audace et de la persévérance.
A few hundred years = Quelques centaines d'années
In number = Au nombre de
I don't like these pictures = Je n'aime pas ces tableaux
In England all vehicles drive on the left = En Engleterre, toutes les voitures roulent à gauche
His clothes were shabby = Ses vêtements étaient larges
He carried a sort of a stick = Il portait une sorte de canne
with a certain condescending roll in his voice = Avec un certain roulement condescendant dans sa voix
And a certain indescribable air of doing something = Et un certain air indescriptible de faire quelque chose
He impressed me very much = il m'impressionna beaucoup
dark against the early winter sunset = sombre dans le contrejour du soleil d'hiver qui se couche tôt
He had good reason to believe = il avait une bonne raison de croire
In that far-off time superstition clung easily round every person = dans ces temps lontains, la superstition planait facilement autour de chacun.
A pleasant sense of scornfull superiority = un plaisant sens de sa supériorité dédaigneuse
The rude mind with diffculty associates the ideas of power = l'esprit rude associe avec difficulté les idées de pouvoir
Primitive wants = désirs primitifs
Inhabited by meagre sheep = occupé par de pauvres troupeaux de moutons.
Many people make this mistake; a lot of people make this mistake = Beaucoup de personnes font cette erreur.
More and more important = De plus en plus important.
Breast high = A hauteur de poitrine
Severe looking = d'aspect sévére
Thin lipped = aux lèvres minces
He would like to be = Il aurait aimé être
laden with fruit = chargés de fruits
She was frightened = elle eut peur
She was to be left alone = on allait la laisser seule

To sell a land

For sale building lands, locality ...Road out of G., to go towards S. These lands will be developped before J. There will be access, roads, networks : (

water, phone, electricity ). = A vendre terrains à bâtir, localité, route, aller vers. Ces terrains doivent être aménagés avant. Il y aura accessibilité,

route aménagements.

It’s possible to extend ... a part of this extension is wooded. = Une extension est possible, une part de cette extension est boisée.

It’s possible to add 600 m2 of woods = Il est possible d'ajouter 600 m2 de bois.

a part of this parcel is wooded ( oaks) = Une partie de cette parcelle est boisée ( chênes ).



Descriptions et expressions in well known authors' books

She was being able to spoil her children all the year round = elle se soumettait toute l'année aux caprices de ses enfants
She talked a geat deal, seemed very happy and rather vulgar = elle parlait beaucoup, semblait très gaie et plutôt vulgaire
J and W attended the meeting; the former remained silent throughout, but the later made some interesting suggestions = J et W assistaient tous deux à

la réunion, le premier garda le silence, mais le dernier fit quelques suggestions intéressantes.
What they did shocked public opinion = ce qu'ils ont fait a choqué l'opinion publique
He said he had once been a politician, which turned out to be a lie = il disait avoir fait de la politique jadis, ce qui s'avéra être un mensonge
Modern improvements have altered the place, but it was the last house at the bottom of a narrow street, curving down hill to the river, with some stairs

at the end, where people took boat. = Des améliorations modernes ont changé le lieu, mais c'était la dernière maison en bas d'une rue étroite tournant

en bas de la colline qui se terminait par des escaliers où les gens pouvaient prendre le bateau.
His complexion was pale or mealy = son teint était pale ou laiteux.
No word can express the secret agony of his soul as he sunk = aucun mot ne peut exprimer l'agonie secrète de son âme alors qu'il sombrait.
his happier childhood = son enfance plus heureuse
His hopes of growing up to be a learned and distinguished man = ses espoirs de grandir pour être un homme instruit et distingué.
A middle-aged person with no more hair upon his head = une personne d'âge moyen avec plus de cheveux sur la tête.
A very serious book that is designed to provide hope and inspiration to anyone affected by. = Un livre très sérieux qui donne espoir et inspiration à

quiconque est touché par...
He has shown pluck and perseverance = Il a montré de l'audace et de la persévérance.
An important looking village with a fine old church = un village à l'aspect important et une élégante vieille église.
The supposed narrator of the whole story = le supposé narrateur de toute cette histoire
They worked with a very decided enthousiasm = ils travaillaient avec un enthousiasme riche de volonté.
In the tale of which an extract is given below = dans l'histoire dont un extrait est donné ci-dessous.
C relates = l'auteur raconte.
a dirty weather knocking about = un temps épouvantable approche.
The sun pale and without rays, poured down a leaden heat = The soleil pale and sans rayons déversait une chaleur de plomb.



Environnement

These conventional means of treatment are succeful in killing pest however they pollute the atmosphere and our water. = Ces moyens conventionneles

de traitement sont actifs contre les insectes nuisibles, cependant ils polluent l'atmosphère et notre eau.
serious health problems such as cancers, allergies and asthma are also on the increase ( more people suffer from) = de sérieux problèmes de santé

tels que les cancers, les allergies et l'asthme sont en augmentation.
In contrast with conventional methods of treatment some people use only water to destroy unwanted pests. They spray boiling water = Par contrate

avec les méthodes traditionnelles de traitement, des personnes utilisent l'eau pour détruire les insectes nuisibles.
they spay boiling water = Ils pulvérisent de l'eau bouillante.
materials can be recycled. It's a new life for. = matériaux peuvent être recyclés, c'est une nouvelle vie pour...
Recyclable materials arre used in order to prevent pollution = les matériaux recyclables sont utilisés pour éviter la pollution

- He tastes a cake, mot à mot, il goûte au gâteau, expression américaine qu'on pourrait traduire par:celle là c'est la meilleure ou: là, tu m'étonnes, ou:

ça alors...ou: j'en reviens pas,c'est génial etc...; utilisé pour exprimer son étonnement mais pas de façon péjorative, au contraire, plutôt admirative.









Slate is one of the most aesthetical and durable of all roofing materials.
L’ardoise est l’un des matériaux les plus esthétiques et les plus résistants des toits

Slate was often used on farm and agricultural buildings as well.
L’ardoise a souvent été utilisée pour les fermes et les bâtiments agricoles

 Slate replacement roofs are expensive ;  le remplacement des ardoises d’un toit est cher

the superiority of materials ;  la supérorité des matériaux
will give years of continued service. Donnera une longue  durée de vie

Slate Use in the United States : utilisation de
Although slate quarrying was not common in the United States until the latter half of the nineteenth century :
quoique les carrières d'ardoises n'étaient pas fréquentes aux EU jusqu' à la 2ième moitié du 19 siècle
Archeological excavations at Jamestown, Virginia, have unearthed roofing slate in strata
Des excavations archéologiques... ont mis à jour des strates d’ardoise
quarries were opened in Vermont, New York, Virginia, and Lehigh and Northampton Counties, Pennsylvania. Des carrières ont été ouvertes au V
 
Where Does Slate Come From? D’où viennent les ardoises ?
Slate is a fine grained, crystalline rock : l’ardoise est une roche cristalline à grain fin
derived from sediments of clay  which were deposited on ancient sea bottoms. Dérivé de sédiments de craie et... qui furent déposés dans un ancien

fond marin
 
At the same time, intense heat and pressure changed the original clays into new minerals such as mica, chlorite, and quartz.
Dans le même temps une chaleur intense et la pression ont changé la craie d’origine en nouveaux minéraux tels mica chlorite et quartz.

 By such mechanical and chemical processes were transformed, or metamorphosed, into slate,

whole geologic ages Slates vary in composition, structure, and durability because the  alteration ( altérés ) is neither uniform nor consistent. (ni

uniforme ni.;;)
l'ensemble des strates géologiques ..; varient ... parce que le degré
These traditional slater's tools are used to cut :
Les outils traditionnels du couvreur, hammer, measure, and rip out nails. marteau mètre et instrument pour arracher la clous


 the methods by which slate is quarried and fabricated, les méthodes selon lesquelle l'ardoise est extraite et fabriquée
 its suitability for use as a roofing tile. sa transformation en vue de couvrir un toit
The metamorphic processes of geologic change necessary to produce slate are dependent upon movements in the earth's crust and the heat and

pressure generated thereby.
Les procédés métamorphiques de changements nécessaires pour produire de l'ardoise dépendent des mouvements de la croute terrestre, de la

chaleur, de la pression générée sur le lieu...
For this reason, slate is found only in certain mountainous regions.
Pour cette raison on n'en trouve que dans les régions montagneuses.


: qq expressions anglaises sur les ardoises
>
>
>
>
>
> Slate is available in a variety of colors. The most common are grey, blue-grey, black, various shades of green, deep purple, brick red
> l'ardoise existe en diverses couleurs La plus commune est grise, gris bleu, noir, divers verts sombres, violet foncé, rouge brique
>
> . The presence of carbonaceous matter ( matière ), derived from the decay ( la décomposition ) of marine organisms on ancient sea floors,
>
> gives rise to the black colored slates. donne aux ardoises cette couleur noire
>
> Compounds of iron generate the red, purple, and green colored slates.
> des composés de fer donnent les ardoises aux nuances  rouge, pourpre, et vert
>
>
> .
> In recent years, slates from China, Africa, Spain and other countries have begun ( commencé ) to be imported into the United States,
>
>
>
>
> Insufficient nailing pas assez de clous
> may be covered with waterproof membrane
>  doit être recouvert par une couverture waterproof
>
> In emergency situations, such as when severe tornadoes (tornades ) blow( souffle ) numerous slates off the roof, a temporary roof covering should

be ( doit être ) installed immediately
>
> Slate roof repair : réparation
>
>
>
>
>
>  leaky gutters, (gouttière ) poor ventilation , and other possible sources of moisture. ( moisissure )
>
>  to prevent overloading of the roof timbers. pour empêcher la surcharge des  poutres
>  Other repairs, such as chimney  (cheminées )
> Drawings ( plans dessins )
>  a restoration architect,
> the original appearance of the roof as closely as possible. aussi près que possible de l'apparence d'origine du toit
>
>
> to avoid galvanic action.( rouille ) Choose nonferrous nails. ( clous )
> Copper ( cuivre ) is one of the best  materials is most often associated with historic slate roofs. Copper is extremely durable, easily worked  and

requires little maintenance.
> Le c' est un  des matériaux le plus utilisés pour les toits de monuments historiques
> copper should be used in gutters, valleys, ( creus ???)  and areas ( zones ) with limited accessibility. flashings, gutters,  and metal roofs (différents

objets du métier )
>
>  Slates nailed in such a manner les ardoises sont clouées d'une certaine façon
>
>
>
> the cost of labor,
> le coût du travail
> natural slate tends to(  paraissent tendent à ) be a better investment
>
> covered by an experienced slater and one helper un couvreur expérimenté et un manoeuvre
> More complex roofs and the presence of chimneys, dormers, and valleys

> repair/replace
> damaged and missing slatesGutters ardoises manquantes
> moisture stains taches de moisissure

> slate is durable

 Deteriorated slates détériorées
 A full, deep sound indicates a slate in good condition. Un son profond indique une ardoise en bonne condition
If maintenance personnel, chimney sweeps, (ramoneurs) painters, or others must walk (marcher ) on the roof, it is recommended that ladders (échelles ) be hooked over ( accrochées )the ridge and that the workmen walk on the ladders to better mieux répartir leur poids ) distribute their weight.
 Slate roofs of many historic buildings
 Slate roofs can, and should be, maintained and repaired to effectively extend their lives. (allonger sa durée de vie )
>  High quality slate
> reputable quarries carrière de bonne réputation

 the quality of the slate,
 North Country Slate produces the highest ( la plus haute )quality roofing slate in the world and its specification is recognized across North America 

for quality.
 Natural slate roofing has been protecting and adorning buildings for over a thousand years.
  The finest Canadian and Vermont roofing slate, from North Country, can endure ( durer des siècles ) for centuries on a roof...many other slates or
imitation slates, cannot.
 a world-class reputation for quality and excellence.
  Chemical composition
 Slate is mainly composed of quartz and muscovite often along with biotite, chlorite, hematite, and pyrite along with, less frequently, ( moins
fréquemment ) graphite, kaolin,  or zircon as well as feldspar. Occasionally, as in the purple slates of North Wales, ferrous  ( fer )  spheres

 Slate installed by a slater. couvreur
 It’s possible to split slate into thin sheets. de l'émincer ? en feuilles ??,
. When broken, slate produces a natural appearance while remaining relatively flat ( relativement plate . Silicone glue adheres to slate,

 Slate extraction

 Slate-producing regions in Europe include Wales

, Cornwall (famously the town of Delabole), France (Angers, Anjou and in the Maritime Alps); Belgium (formerly); Liguria in northern Italy
> In the Americas, slate is found in Brazil (the second biggest producer of slate) (responsible for 95% of the extraction of slate in Brazil), the east coast  of Newfoundland, the Slate Belt( ceinture )of Eastern Pennsylvania, and the Slate Valley of Vermont and New York.
 Slate is also found in the Arctic and was used by the Inuit. China has vast slate deposits; in recent years its export  has increased.
 On historic buildings
 To repair slate roofs
Qualified workers ( travailleurs qualifiés )trained and experienced ( entraînés expérimentés )
 Containers
 To store in a upright position;( posés non à plat)...to store (emmagasiner ) in an area maintained at a temperature not lower ( pas plus basse )than ten degrees
 Before laying ( avant de poser )

  Slate Roofs
Slate is one of the most aesthetically pleasing and durable of all roofing materials.

L’ardoise est l’un des matériaux les plus agréables esthétiquement des toits
slate was often used on farm and agricultural buildings as well.
L’ardoise a souvent été utilisée pour les fermes et les bâtiments agricoles
 slate replacement roofs are expensive,  le remplacement des ardoises d’un toit est cherthe superiority of materials  la supérorité des matériaux will  give years of continued service. Donnera une longue  durée de vie

History of Slate Use in the United States

Although slate quarrying was not common in the United States until the latter half of the nineteenth century, slate roofing is known to have been used prior to the Revolution. Archeological excavations at Jamestown, Virginia,have unearthed roofing slate in strata dating from 1625-1650 and 1640-1670.
quarries were opened in Vermont, New York, Virginia, and Lehigh and Northampton Counties, Pennsylvania.
Where Does Slate Come From? D’où viennent les ardoises ?
Slate is a fine grained, crystalline rock l’ardoise est une roche cristalline à grain fin
derived from sediments of clay and fine silt which were deposited on ancient sea bottoms. Dérivé de sédiments de craie et... qui furent déposés dans un ancien fond marin
At the same time, intense heat and pressure changed the original clays into new minerals such as mica, chlorite, and quartz.
Dans le même temps une chaleur intense et la pression ont changé la craie d’origine en nouveaux minéraux tels mica ch et quartz.
 By such mechanical and chemical processes were transformed, or metamorphosed, into slate,
whole geologic ages Slates vary in composition, structure, and durability because the degree to which their determinant minerals have been altered ( altérés ) is neither uniform nor consistent. (ni uniforme ni.;;)

 These traditional slater's tools are used to cut and trim, hammer, measure, and rip out nails. Photo: Jeffrey S. Levine.
The adaptation of slate for roofing purposes is inextricably linked to its genesis. The manufacturing processes of nature have endowed slate with certain

commercially amenable properties which have had a profound influence on the methods by which slate is quarried and fabricated, as well as its suitability for use as a roofing tile.
The metamorphic processes of geologic change necessary to produce slate are dependent upon movements in the earth's crust and the heat and pressure generated thereby. For this reason, slate is found only in certain mountainous regions. The most economically important slate deposits in this country lie in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern states
Slate is available in a variety of colors. The most common are grey, blue-grey, black, various shades of green, deep purple, brick red, and mottled varieties. The presence of carbonaceous matter, derived from the decay of marine organisms on ancient sea floors, gives rise to the black colored slates. Compounds of iron generate the red, purple, and green colored slates.

Generally, the slates of Maine, Virginia, and the Peach Bottom district of York County, Pennsylvania are deep blue-black in color. Those of Virginia have a distinctive lustrous appearance as well due to their high mica content. The slates of Lehigh and Northampton Counties, Pennsylvania, are grayish-black in color. Green, red, purple, and mottled slates derive from the New York-Vermont district. The slate producing region of New York, which centers around Granville and Middle Granville, is particularly important because it contains one of the few commercial deposits of red slate in the world.

In recent years, slates from China, Africa, Spain and other countries have begun to be imported into the United States, primarily for distribution on the West Coast. The use of imported slates should probably be limited to new construction since their colors and textures often do not match those of U.S.
slate.
Deterioration of Slate and Slate Roofs
 The white blotches on these Pennsylvania Soft-Vein slates indicate areas where gypsum is leaching out onto the surfaces of the slates. Photo: Jeffrey
S. Levine.
The durability of a slate roof depends primarily on four factors: the physical and mineralogical properties of the slate; the way in which it is fabricated;  installation techniques employed; and, regular and timely maintenance. The first three of these factors are examined below. The maintenance and  repair of slate roofs are discussed in later sections of this Brief.
The natural weathering of roofing slate manifests itself as a slow process of chipping and scaling along the cleavage planes. Paper thin laminations flake  off the surface of the slate and the slate becomes soft and spongy as the inner layers begin to come apart, or delaminate. The nature of the sound  given off by a slate when tapped with one's knuckles or slating hammer is a fair indication of its condition. Highgrade slate, when poised upon the fingertips and struck, will emit a clear, solid sound. Severely weathered slates are much less sonorous, and give off a dull thud when tapped.
The weathering of slate is chiefly due to mineral impurities (primarily calcite and iron sulfides) in the slate which, in concert with alternating wet/dry and hot/cold cycles, react to form gypsum. Because gypsum molecules take up about twice as much volume as calcite molecules, internal stresses result  from the reaction, causing the slate to delaminate. This type of deterioration is as prominent on the underside of the roof as on the exposed surface due to the leaching and subsequent concentration of gypsum in this area. Consequently, deteriorated roofing slates typically cannot be flipped over and
reused.
 Paper thin lamination can be seen flaking off this weathered, 120 year piece of Pennsylvania Hard-Vein slate. Photo: Jeffrey S. Levine.
The chemical and physical changes which accompany slate weathering cause an increase in absorption and a decrease in both strength and toughness.

The tendency of old, weathered slates to absorb and hold moisture can lead to rot in underlying areas of wood sheathing. Such rot can go undetected  for long periods of time since, often, there is no accompanying leak. Due to their loss of strength, weathered slates are more prone to breakage, loss of  corners, and cracking.

Slates with low calcite content tend to weather slowly. Dense slates, with low porosity, likewise decay slower than slates with equal calcite, but with a greater porosity. The pitch of a roof can also affect its longevity. The steeper the pitch, the longer the slate can be expected to last as water will run off faster and will be less likely to be drawn under the slates by capillary action or driven under by wind forces. Spires and the steep slopes of Mansard
roofs often retain their original slate long after other portions of the roof have been replaced. Areas of a roof subject to concentrated water flows and  ice damming, such as along eaves and valleys, also tend to deteriorate more rapidly than other areas of the roof.

 View of these slates laid on open sheathing shows that delamination and flaking are just as bad or worse on the underside of slates as on the exposed  surface. This is why most slates cannot be flipped over for reuse. Photo: Jeffrey S. Levine.

Mechanical agents, such as thermal expansion and contraction and the action of frost, are subordinate in the weathering of slate, coming into play only  after the slate has been materially altered from its original state by the chemical transformation of calcite to gypsum. The more rapid deterioration of  slates found on roof slopes with the most severe exposure to the sun, wind, and rain (typically, but not always, a southern exposure) may be  attributable to the combined result of the deleterious effects of impurities in the slate and mechanical agents. Atmospheric acids produce only negligible deterioration in roofing slate.
It is difficult to assess the procedures by which a piece of slate has been fabricated without visiting the quarry and observing the process first hand. The  location and size of nail holes, grain orientation, the condition of corners, and the number of broken pieces are all things which may be observed in a  shipment of slate to judge the quality of its fabrication. Nail holes should be clean and with a shallow countersink on the face of the slate for the nail  head; grain oriented along the length of the slate; and, corners left whole. An allowance for 10% breakage in shipment is typically provided for by the  quarry.

Installation problems often involve the improper nailing and lapping of slates. The nailing of slates differs from that of other roofing materials. Slate  nails should not be driven tight as is the case with asphalt and wood shingles. Rather, they should be set such that the slate is permitted to hang freely  on the nail shank. Nails driven too far will crack the slate and those left projecting will puncture the overlying slate. Nail heads left exposed accelerate  roof deterioration by providing a point for water entry. Non-ferrous slater's nails, such as solid copper or stainless steel, should always be used since  plain steel and galvanized nails will usually rust out long before the slate itself begins to deteriorate. The rusting of nineteenth century cut nails is a  common cause of slate loss on historic roofs.

When joints are improperly broken (i.e., when slates lap the joints in the course below by less than 3" [7.5 cm]), it is possible for water to pass between  the joints, through the nail holes and ultimately to the underlying felt, where it will cause deterioration and leaks to develop. Insufficient headlap can also result in leaks as water entering the joints between slates may have a greater tendency to be wind blown beyond the heads of the slates in the course below.
Occasionally, individual slates are damaged. This may be caused by falling tree limbs, ice dams in gutters, valleys, and chimney crickets, the weight of  a workman walking on the roof, or a naturally occurring fault in the slate unit. Whatever the form of damage, if it is caught soon enough, the roof can  usually be repaired or selectively replaced and deterioration mitigated.

The ability to lay slate properly so as to produce a watertight and aesthetically pleasing roof requires training, much practice, and the right tools. The  installation and repair of slate roofs should be entrusted only to experienced slaters.

Repairing Slate Roofs

Broken, cracked, and missing slates should be repaired promptly by an experienced slater in order to prevent water damage to interior finishes
The damaged slate is first removed by cutting or pulling out its nails with a ripper. If steel cut nails, rather than copper nails, were used in laying the  roof, adjacent slates may be inadvertently damaged or displaced in the ripping process, and these, too, will have to be repaired. If the slate does not slide out by itself, the pointed end of the ,slate hammer can be punched into the slate and the slate dragged out. A new slate, or salvaged slate, which should match the size, shape, texture, and weathered color of the old slate, is then slid into place and held in position by one nail inserted through the vertical joint between the slates in the course above and approximately one inch below the tail of the slate two courses above.
After removing the deteriorated slate and sliding the new slate into place, it is secured with a copper nail. A copper bib (shown here) is formed to protect the newly created nail hole. Finally, a slate hammer is used to push the bib in place over the nail head.
To prevent water penetration through the newly created nail hole, a piece of is slid lengthwise under the joint between the two
To permit proper re-laying of the slate, the new roof must be of smooth and solid construction. At least two nails should be
Insufficient nailing
may be covered with waterproof membrane underlayment rather In emergency situations, such as when severe hurricanes or tornadoes blow numerous slates off the roof, a temporary roof covering should be installed

immediately after the storm to prevent further water damage to the interior of the building and to permit the drying out process to begin.
 can be blown off in high winds.
Slate roof repair
localized problems
 damaged roofs with reasonably long serviceable lives remaining. If 20% or more of the slates on a roof or roof slope are broken, cracked, missing, or  sliding out of position, it is usually less expensive to replace the roof than to execute individual repairs
 It is usually wise to salvage slates when only a portion of the roof is to be replaced. In this way, the salvaged slates may be used for future repairs to the remaining sections of the roof.
Deteriorated Roofs
Historic slate roofs should be repaired rather than replaced whenever possible. Before replacing a slate roof, check for isolated damage, corroded and  worn flashings, leaky gutters, poor ventilation in the attic, and other possible sources of moisture.
If repair is not possible and a new slate roof must be installed, it is important to remember that more than just the replacement of the slate is involved.
The old slate should be removed to prevent overloading of the roof timbers. Stripping should be done in sections, with felt installed, to avoid exposing
the entire subroof to the weather. ln the process, rotted wood sheathing should be replaced and the roof timbers checked for signs of stress including  deflection, cracking, and twisting. If such conditions are found, a structural engineer experienced in working with older buildings should be consulted.

Other repairs, such as chimney repointing, which may require access to the roof should be completed before the new roof is put on.

 Drawings ( plans dessins ) and specifications for a new slate roof should be prepared by a restoration architect,

the original appearance of the roof as closely as possible.

A roof and its associated flashings, gutters,
to avoid galvanic action. Choose nonferrous nails. Use heavier gauge flashings
Copper is one of the best flashing materials is most often associated with historic slate roofs. Copper is extremely durable, easily worked and soldered,
and requires little maintenance.
copper should be used in gutters, valleys, and areas with limited accessibility. flashings, gutters, downspouts, and metal roofs
covered with a cap flashing. Slates nailed in such a manner
It is important that holes be punched from the back side of the slate. In this way, a shallow countersink is created on the face of the slate in which the  head of the nail may sit.
the cost of labor, flashings, and tearingoff the old roof
natural slate tends to be a better investment covered by an experienced slater and one helper
More complex roofs and the presence of chimneys, dormers, and valleys

repair/replace
damaged and missing slatesGutters
moisture stains

slate is durable

Deteriorated slates
A full, deep sound indicates a slate in good condition, while a dull thud suggests a slate in poor condition.Given the relatively high initial cost of installing a new slate roof,

to inspect its overall condition annually and after several storms. For safety reasons, it is recommended that building owners and maintenance personnel carry out roof surveys from the ground
Regular maintenance should include cleaning gutters at least twice during the fall and once in early spring, and replacing damaged slates promptly.
Every five to seven years inspections should be conducted by professionals experienced in working with slate and steep slopes. If maintenance personnel, chimney sweeps, painters, or others must walk on the roof, it is recommended that ladders be hooked over the ridge and that the workmen walk on the ladders to better distribute their weight. If slates are to be walked on, it is best to wear soft soled shoes and to step on the lowermiddle of the slate unit.
Slate roofs of many historic buildings
Slate roofs can, and should be, maintained and repaired to effectively extend their lives. When replacement is necessary, details contributing to the appearance of the roof should be retained. High quality slate

reputable quarries
Slate Roofs
 Slate Roofing Contractors
the quality of the slate,

North Country Slate produces the highest quality roofing slate in the world and its specification is recognized across North America as a requirement for quality.
Natural slate roofing has been protecting and adorning buildings for over a thousand years. The finest Canadian and Vermont roofing slate, from North Country, can endure for centuries on a roof...many imported or imitation slates, cannot.
North Country Slate's experienced staff will provide the expertise, information and technical support
 a world-class reputation for quality and excellence.

 Chemical composition
Slate is mainly composed of quartz and muscovite often along with biotite, chlorite, hematite, and pyrite along with, less frequently, graphite, kaolin,  or  zircon as well as feldspar. Occasionally, as in the purple slates of North Wales, ferrous reduction spheres form around iron nuclei, leaving a light green spotted texture.  a cleavage plane of the specimen.
Slate roof
Slate installed by a slater. It’s possible to split slate into thin sheets. Due to its thermal stability and chemical inertness
. When broken, slate produces a natural appearance while remaining relatively flat Silicone glue adheres to slate, creating a non-toxic bond to secure it.
Slate extraction
Slate-producing regions in Europe include Wales (see slate industry in Wales), Cornwall (famously the town of Delabole), and Cumbria (see Burlington
Slate Quarries, Honister Slate Mine and Skiddaw Slate) in the United Kingdom; parts of France (Angers, Anjou and in the Maritime Alps); Belgium
(formerly); Liguria in northern Italy
In the Americas, slate is found in Brazil (the second biggest producer of slate) (responsible for 95% of the extraction of slate in Brazil), the east coast of   Newfoundland, the Slate Belt of Eastern Pennsylvania, and the Slate Valley of Vermont and New York. The area around Granville, NY, is one place where colored slate (non-blue) is mined. Others include Wales (purple and formerly green) and Cumbria (green) in the UK; Brazil (green); China (many colors); and Newfoundland.[citation needed]
Slate is also found in the Arctic and was used by the Inuit. China has vast slate deposits; in recent years its export of finished and unfinished slate has increased.
On historic buildings

To repair slate roofs
Qualified workers trained and experienced in inctalling slate roofing systems
Containers
To store in a upright position; to store in an area maintained at a temperature not lower than ten degrees
Before laying
 Slate Roofs
 Slate Roofing Contractors
the quality of the slate,

North Country Slate produces the highest quality roofing slate in the world and its specification is recognized across North America as a requirement for quality.
Natural slate roofing has been protecting and adorning buildings for over a thousand years. The finest Canadian and Vermont roofing slate, from North Country, can endure for centuries on a roof...many imported or imitation slates, cannot.
North Country Slate's experienced staff will provide the expertise, information and technical support
 a world-class reputation for quality and excellence.
 
 Chemical composition
Slate is mainly composed of quartz and muscovite often along with biotite, chlorite, hematite, and pyrite along with, less frequently, graphite, kaolin,  or

zircon as well as feldspar. Occasionally, as in the purple slates of North Wales, ferrous reduction spheres form around iron nuclei, leaving a light green
spotted texture.  a cleavage plane of the specimen.
Slate roof
Slate installed by a slater. It’s possible to split slate into thin sheets. Due to its thermal stability and chemical inertness
. When broken, slate produces a natural appearance while remaining relatively flat Silicone glue adheres to slate, creating a non-toxic bond to secure it.
Slate extraction
Slate-producing regions in Europe include Wales (see slate industry in Wales), Cornwall (famously the town of Delabole), and Cumbria (see Burlington
Slate Quarries, Honister Slate Mine and Skiddaw Slate) in the United Kingdom; parts of France (Angers, Anjou and in the Maritime Alps); Belgium
(formerly); Liguria in northern Italy
In the Americas, slate is found in Brazil (the second biggest producer of slate) (responsible for 95% of the extraction of slate in Brazil), the east coast of Newfoundland, the Slate Belt of Eastern Pennsylvania, and the Slate Valley of Vermont and New York. The area around Granville, NY, is one place

where colored slate (non-blue) is mined. Others include Wales (purple and formerly green) and Cumbria (green) in the UK; Brazil (green); China (many
colors); and Newfoundland.[citation needed]
Slate is also found in the Arctic and was used by the Inuit. China has vast slate deposits; in recent years its export of finished and unfinished slate has increased.
On historic buildings
To repair slate roofs
Qualified workers trained and experienced in inctalling slate roofing systems
Containers
To store in a upright position; to store in an area maintained at a temperature not lower than ten degrees

Before laying


Slate is one of the most aesthetical and durable of all roofing materials.
L’ardoise est l’un des matériaux les plus esthétiques et les plus résistants des toits

Slate was often used on farm and agricultural buildings as well.
L’ardoise a souvent été utilisée pour les fermes et les bâtiments agricoles

 Slate replacement roofs are expensive ;  le remplacement des ardoises d’un toit est cher

the superiority of materials ;  la supérorité des matériaux
will give years of continued service. Donnera une longue  durée de vie

Slate Use in the United States : utilisation de
Although slate quarrying was not common in the United States until the latter half of the nineteenth century :
quoique les carrières d'ardoises n'étaient pas fréquentes aux EU jusqu' à la 2ième moitié du 19 siècle
Archeological excavations at Jamestown, Virginia, have unearthed roofing slate in strata
Des excavations archéologiques... ont mis à jour des strates d’ardoise
quarries were opened in Vermont, New York, Virginia, and Lehigh and Northampton Counties, Pennsylvania. Des carrières ont été ouvertes au V
 
Where Does Slate Come From? D’où viennent les ardoises ?
Slate is a fine grained, crystalline rock : l’ardoise est une roche cristalline à grain fin
derived from sediments of clay  which were deposited on ancient sea bottoms. Dérivé de sédiments de craie et... qui furent déposés dans un ancien

fond marin
 
At the same time, intense heat and pressure changed the original clays into new minerals such as mica, chlorite, and quartz.
Dans le même temps une chaleur intense et la pression ont changé la craie d’origine en nouveaux minéraux tels mica chlorite et quartz.

 By such mechanical and chemical processes were transformed, or metamorphosed, into slate,

whole geologic ages Slates vary in composition, structure, and durability because the  alteration ( altérés ) is neither uniform nor consistent. (ni

uniforme ni.;;)
l'ensemble des strates géologiques ..; varient ... parce que le degré
These traditional slater's tools are used to cut :
Les outils traditionnels du couvreur, hammer, measure, and rip out nails. marteau mètre et instrument pour arracher la clous


 the methods by which slate is quarried and fabricated, les méthodes selon lesquelle l'ardoise est extraite et fabriquée
 its suitability for use as a roofing tile. sa transformation en vue de couvrir un toit
The metamorphic processes of geologic change necessary to produce slate are dependent upon movements in the earth's crust and the heat and

pressure generated thereby.
Les procédés métamorphiques de changements nécessaires pour produire de l'ardoise dépendent des mouvements de la croute terrestre, de la

chaleur, de la pression générée sur le lieu...
For this reason, slate is found only in certain mountainous regions.
Pour cette raison on n'en trouve que dans les régions montagneuses.

: qq expressions anglaises sur les ardoises
>
> Slate is available in a variety of colors. The most common are grey, blue-grey, black, various shades of green, deep purple, brick red
> l'ardoise existe en diverses couleurs La plus commune est grise, gris bleu, noir, divers verts sombres, violet foncé, rouge brique
>
> . The presence of carbonaceous matter ( matière ), derived from the decay ( la décomposition ) of marine organisms on ancient sea floors,
>
> gives rise to the black colored slates. donne aux ardoises cette couleur noire
>
> Compounds of iron generate the red, purple, and green colored slates.
> des composés de fer donnent les ardoises aux nuances  rouge, pourpre, et vert
>
> In recent years, slates from China, Africa, Spain and other countries have begun ( commencé ) to be imported into the United States,
>
>
> Insufficient nailing pas assez de clous
> may be covered with waterproof membrane
>  doit être recouvert par une couverture waterproof
>
> In emergency situations, such as when severe tornadoes (tornades ) blow( souffle ) numerous slates off the roof, a temporary roof covering should

be ( doit être ) installed immediately
>
> Slate roof repair : réparation

>  leaky gutters, (gouttière ) poor ventilation , and other possible sources of moisture. ( moisissure )
>
>  to prevent overloading of the roof timbers. pour empêcher la surcharge des  poutres
>  Other repairs, such as chimney  (cheminées )


> the original appearance of the roof as closely as possible. aussi près que possible de l'apparence d'origine du toit
>
>
> to avoid galvanic action.( rouille ) Choose nonferrous nails. ( clous )
Use heavier gauge flashings
Copper is one of the best flashing materials is most often associated with historic slate roofs. Copper is extremely durable, easily worked and soldered,

and requires little maintenance.
> Le c' est un  des matériaux le plus utilisés pour les toits de monuments historiques
> copper should be used in gutters, valleys, ( creus ???)  and areas ( zones ) with limited accessibility. flashings, gutters,
downspouts,  and metal roofs (différents

objets du métier )
>
>  Slates nailed in such a manner les ardoises sont clouées d'une certaine façon
>
>
>
> the cost of labor,
> le coût du travail
> natural slate tends to(  paraissent tendent à ) be a better investment
>
> covered by an experienced slater and one helper un couvreur expérimenté et un manoeuvre
> More complex roofs and the presence of chimneys, dormers, and valleys

> repair/replace
> damaged and missing slatesGutters ardoises manquantes
> moisture stains taches de moisissure

> slate is durable

 Deteriorated slates détériorées
 A full, deep sound indicates a slate in good condition.
while a dull thud suggests a slate in poor condition. Un son profond indique une ardoise en bonne condition
If maintenance personnel, chimney sweeps, (ramoneurs) painters, or others must walk (marcher ) on the roof, it is recommended that ladders (